1 Chronicles 9


Israel’s Return to Its Inheritance (9:1-34)

      • NLT Illustrated Study Bible writes, “The Chronicler shows how people and institutions who returned from the Exile had continuity with the past. The Levites and the priests are prominent in this summary of Israel, expressing the Chronicler’s view that they were central to the organization of the nation. They were crucial to Israel’s function and success as a nation where God was the King. The Chronicler drew upon the records of ancient times as far back as Moses and David (9:19-22) to describe each group’s homeland and rank.

Official Records of Israel

      • So all of Israel was registered in genealogical records that are recorded in the “Book of the Kings of Israel,” and Judah was exiled to Babylon because of their unfaithfulness.

        • NLT Illustrated Study Bible notes, “The statement that all Israel was listed in the genealogical records reveals the crux of the Chronicler’s thought, that all Israel was represented by the community of Judea in the time of the Chronicler, which had continuity with Israel’s past.” On the “Book of the Kings of Israel,” the same source explains that this book “is a source document that the authors of both Kings and Chronicles used but has now been lost.”

        • ESV Study Bible adds, “The summarizing conclusion to the tribal genealogies of all Israel in chs 2-8. Judah’s exile to Babylon for breach of faith (Hb ma’al) parallels the fate of the northern tribes (see 5:25-26) and represents the culmination of the narrative of the post-Solomonic dynasty in 2 Chron 10-36 (see esp 2 Chron 36:14-20).”

        • Guzik points out, “In one sentence, the Chronicler reminds us that it was not the clash of empires or the intrigues of the geopolitical scene that doomed the Kingdom of Judah. It was their unfaithfulness to God. If they had remained faithful, God would have protected them amid the rise and fall of a hundred powerful empires.”

The Exiles Return to Jerusalem

        • ESV Study Bible says “The resettlement of Jerusalem after the exile indicates that a new chapter has opened in Israel’s existence. The punishment of exile is past (2 Chron 36:22-23), so the people should respond to God’s grace by ordering their lives in the right way, in the hope of a fuller restoration than their present experience. Their obedient response includes repopulating Jerusalem (1 Chron 9:2-17; for an account of how this was encouraged by Nehemiah see Neh 11:1-19, which is closely related to this passage), and a renewed commitment to supporting the temple and its services, signified here by its personnel (1 Chron 9:10-33).”

      • The first to live in their own cities and on their own property again were Israelites, priests, Levites, and temple servants.

        • Guzik notes, “The Chronicler completely skips over the 70 years of captivity between verses 1 and 2. His interest is not only in the past (demonstrated by 8 previous chapters of genealogies), but also in the present and in the future. The Israelites were back in the land.”

        • HCSB writes, “The term ‘Israelites’ (Judeans) refers to laymen in contrast to the clergy: priests, Levites, and temple servants. This is not a reference to the northern tribes.”

      • Some from the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Ephraim, and Manasseh settled in Jerusalem:

      • Uthai, who was Ammihud’s son. Ammihud was Omri’s son, Omri was Imri’s son, Imri was Bani’s son. Bani was a descendant of Judah’s son Perez.

        • ESV Study Bible notes, “The repopulated Jerusalem includes people from Ephraim and Manasseh, as well as Judah and Benjamin, as a representative nucleus of all Israel. The Judahites are presented as descendants of the patriarch’s son Perez, Shelah (assuming the word Shilonites should have the vowels for ‘Shelanites’; see Num 26:20), and Zerah.”

        • From the Shilonites: Asaiah, who was the firstborn, and his sons.

        • Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers says, “Shilonite means ‘man of Shiloh,’ the ancient capital of Ephraim; whereas 1Chronicles 9:4-6 have to do with Judah. The three sons of Judah, after whom three great sub-tribal divisions were named, were Pharez, Shelah, and Zarah (Genesis 38). The clan of Shelah was called the Shelanite (Numbers 26:20), and that is doubtless the correct reading here (see 1Chronicles 2:3; 1Chronicles 4:21), supported as it is by the LXX…and the Targum. Asaiah (‘Jah hath wrought’) is essentially the same as “Maaseiah” (‘Work of Jah’) in Nehemiah 11:5, where six progenitors are enumerated.”

        • From the Zerahites: Jeuel.

        • There were 690 people from Judah.

        • From the Benjaminites: Sallu, who was Mashullam’s son, Mashullam was Hodaviah’s son, and Hodaviah was Hassenuah’s son; Ibneiah, who was Jeroham’s son; Elah, who was Uzzi’s son, and Uzzi was Mikri’s son; and Meshullam, who was Shephatiah’s son, Shephatiah was Reuel’s son, and Reuel was Ibnijah’s son.

        • There were 956 people from Benjamin, as listed in their genealogies. All these men were leaders of their families.

The Returning Priests

          • ESV Study Bible writes, “The priests in postexilic Jerusalem are commended for their ability and commitment to the temple ministry (v. 13). Their numbers (1,760) have grown significantly since earlier days (1,192 in Neh 11:12-14).”

        • From the priests:

        • Jedaiah; Jehoiarib; Jakin; Azariah, who was Hilkiah’s son, Hilkiah was Meshullam’s son, Meshullam was Zadok’s son, Zadok was Meraioth’s son, and Meraioth was Ahitub’s son. Azariah was the leading official of the house of God.

        • Adaiah, who was Jeroham’s son, Jeroham was Pashhur’s son, Pashhur was Malkijah’s son, Malkijah was Maasai’s son, Maasai was Adiel’s son, Adiel was Jahzerah’s son, Jahzerah was Meshullam’s son, Meshullam was Meshillemith’s son, and Meshillemith was Immer’s son.

        • Their relatives, who were leaders of their families, numbered 1,760. They were capable men who were assigned to carry out the various tasks of service in God’s house.

The Returning Levites

        • ESV Study Bible says, “The Levitical singers and musicians include descendants of Asaph and Jeduthun, choir leaders in David’s day (6:39; 25:1). Other singers lived in the villages of the Netophathites, near Bethlehem (Neh 12:28).”

        • From the Levites:

        • Shemaiah, who was Hasshub’s son, Hasshub was Azrikam’s son , Azrikam was Hashabiah’s son, Hashabiah was a descendant of Merari; Bakbakkar; Heresh; Galal; Mattaniah, who was Mika’s son, Mika was Zikri’s son, Zikri was Asaph’s son; Obadiah, who was Shemaiah’s son, Shemaiah was Galal’s son, Galal was Jeduthun’s son; and Berekiah, who was Asa’s son, Asa was Elkanah’s son, who lived among the villages of the Netophathites.

        • The gatekeepers were:

          • ESV Study Bible notes, “The Chronicler gives special attention to the Levitical gatekeepers, tracing their authority to their service under Phinehas (v. 20; see Num 25:6-11) and their appointment by David (1 Chron 9:22; 26:1-32). Along with their primary duty of safeguarding the sanctity and security of the temple (which entailed regular shifts by Levites from the villages near Jerusalem, 9:22-25), the gatekeepers were also responsible for the utensils and supplies used in the daily sacrifices (vv. 28-32).”

        • Shallum, Akkub, Talmon, Ahiman, and their relatives. Shallum was their leader, and to this day is stationed at the King’s Gate on the east side. These were the gatekeepers from the camp of the Levites.

        • If you’re comparing translations, you’ll notice that there is some discrepancy in how these two verses (17 and 18) are to be understood. Ellicott’s Commentary for English Readers says, “Shallum (‘recompense’) is called ‘Shelemiah’ (1Chronicles 26:14), which, again, is a curtailment of Meshelemiah (‘Jah recompenseth’), 1Chronicles 26:1; 1Chronicles 9:21 infra. The fact that Shallum—Meshelemiah—is spoken of as warder in David’s day as well as in the post-exilic age, proves that a guild or clan, not an individual, is in question. The eastern gate was the post of honour (Ezekiel 46:1-2), and the royal entry. The old name of the King’s Gate would naturally be retained in the restored Temple.”

        • Shallum, who was Kore’s son, Kore was Ebiasaph’s son, Ebiasaph was Korah’s son, and his relatives from his family (the Korathites) were responsible for guarding the entrance to the sanctuary, just as their ancestors had been responsible for guarding the entrance to Yahweh’s camp. In earlier times, Eleazar’s son Phinehas had been their leader, and Yahweh was with him. Meshelemiah’s son Zechariah was the gatekeeper at the entrance of the tent of meeting.

        • In all there were 212 people chosen to be gatekeepers at the entrances, and their names were recorded in the genealogical records of their villages. David and Samuel the prophet had assigned them to their positions. They and their descendants were assigned to guard the gates of the house of Yahweh, that is, the tabernacle. The gatekeepers were posted on all four sides- east, west, north, and south. Their relatives living in the villages were obligated to come at fixed times and serve with them for 7 day periods. The four head gatekeepers, who were Levites, were assigned to guard the storerooms and treasuries in the house of God. They would spend the night at their posts all around the house of God because it was their responsibility to guard it, and they had to open it each morning.

        • Some of them were in charge of the utensils used in service. They were required to count them when they were brought in and taken out. Others of them were appointed over the furnishings and the utensils of the sanctuary, as well as the fine flour, wine, olive oil, incense, and spices. Some of the priest’s sons mixed the spices. A Levite named Mattithiah, who was the firstborn son of Shallum the Korathite, was responsible for baking the offering bread. Also, some of their Kohathite relatives were responsible for preparing the showbread to be set out on the table every Sabbath.

        • ESV Study Bible remarks, “The responsibilities of vv. 28-31 may strike the modern reader as obscure and dull. Perhaps they seemed so to the ancient reader as well. Nevertheless, the whole work of the sanctuary depended on the faithfulness of these men; and all of God’s people may take comfort from this reminder that God both notices and remembers those who faithfully perform routine tasks in service to him. The mention of these servants was probably a source of pride to their later descendants.”

        • The musicians and the leaders of the Levite families stayed in rooms of the sanctuary and were exempt from other duties because they had to carry out their assigned tasks day and night.

        • All these were the leaders of the Levite families as listed in their genealogical records, and they lived in Jerusalem.

Founding of the Kingdom (9:35-20:8)

Removal of Saul as King (9:35-10:14)

Genealogy of Saul

          • ESV Study Bible notes, “Saul’s genealogy is repeated from 8:29-38. Its main purpose here is to introduce the Chronicler’s account of Saul’s reign (ch. 10). While his dynasty ended with his death (10:6), nevertheless his family line continued for many generations as a part of Israel (9:40-44).”

        • Jeiel (the father of Gibeon) lived in Gibeon, and his wife’s name was Maakah. His firstborn son was Abdon, followed by Zur, Kish, Baal, Ner, Nadab, Gedor, Ahio, Zechariah, and Mikloth. Mikloth was Shimeam’s father. They also lived near their other relatives in Jerusalem.

        • Ner was Kish’s father, Kish was Saul’s father, and Saul was the father of Jonathan, Malkishua, Abinadab, and Eshbaal.

        • Jonathan’s son: Meribbaal, who was Micah’s father.

        • Micah’s sons: Pithon, Melek, Tahrea, and Ahaz.

        • Ahaz was Jadah’s father, Jadah was Alemeth’s father, Alemeth’s sons were Azmaveth and Zimri, Zimri was Moza’s father, Moza was Binea’s father, Binea was Rephaiah’s father, Rephaiah was Eleasah’s father, and Eleasah was Azel’s father.

        • Azel’s 6 sons: his firstborn Azrikam, followed by Ishmael, Sheariah, Obadiah, and Hanan.

        • NET Bible’s text critical notes remind us, “The Hebrew text has…(bokhru), which some understand as a name: ‘Bocheru’ (so, e.g., NEB, NASB, NIV, NRSV, NLT). But the form should probably be revocalized…(bkhoro, ‘his firstborn’). A name has accidentally dropped from the list, and a scribe apparently read…as one of the names. Cf. also 1 Chr 8:38.”

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